Sunday, May 24, 2020
The Oneota (or western Upper Mississippian) is the name archaeologists have given to the last prehistoric culture (1150-1700 AD) of the American upper midwest. The Oneota lived in villages and camps along tributary streams and rivers of the upper reaches of the Mississippi River. The archaeological remains of Oneota villages are located in the modern states of Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska and Missouri. What Did They Know of Cahokias Complex Capital? The origin of the Oneota people is somewhat of a controversy. Some scholars argue that the Oneota were descendants of the pre-Mississippian Woodland groups who were immigrants from other as-yet unknown locations, perhaps the Cahokia area. Another group of scholars argue the Oneota were local Late Woodland groups who changed their society as a result of contact with Middle Mississippian technologies and ideologies. Although there are clear connections in Oneota symbolism to the Mississippian complex of Cahokia, the Oneota sociopolitical organization was widely divergent from that of the complex society at the capital in the American Bottom near St. Louis, Missouri. Oneota groups were mainly independent chiefly societies located on major rivers upstream and far away from Cahokia. Oneota Characteristics Over the nearly six hundred years of their (recognized) occupation of the Upper Mississippi region, Oneota people changed their style of living and subsistence patterns and as the Europeans moved into the region, they migrated far to the west. But their cultural identity maintained a continuity, based on the presence of a number of artifact types and icononography. The most commonly recognized artifact of Oneota culture is shell-tempered, globular-shaped ceramic vessels with purposefully smoothed, but not burnished, exteriors. Distinctive point types used by Oneota hunters are small unnotched triangular arrow points called either Fresno or Madison points. Other stone tools connected with Oneota populations include pipestone carved into tablets, pipes and pendants; stone scrapers for buffalo hides, and fishhooks. Bone and shell hoes are indicative of Oneota agriculture, as are the ridged fields found in the early and eastern villages of Wisconsin. Architecture included oval wigwams, multi-family longhouses and cemeteries organized in sprawling villages on terraces near main rivers. Some evidence of warfare and violence are seen in the archaeological record; and the evidence of movement west with a maintained connectedness to people back home in the east are indicated by trade goods, including pipestone and hides, and metasedimentary abrasive rocks called paralava (formerly mis-identified as volcanic pumice or scoria). Chronology cal AD 1700-present day. Historic and modern tribes thought to be descended from Oneota include Ioway, Oto, Ho-Chunk, Missouria, Ponca and othersProtohistoric Oneota (Classic) (cal AD 1600-1700). After direct and indirect contact with French trappers and traders, La Crosse was abandoned, and the people moved westward along the Iowa/Minnesota borders and west following bison herdsMiddle Oneota (Developmental) (cal AD 1300-1600), Apple River and Red Wing abandoned, expanded outward. Oneota settlements opened at La Crosse, Minnesota, and the central Des Moines River valley (Moingona Phase)Early Oneota (Emergent) cal AD 1150-1300. Apple River (northwest Illinois) and Red Wing (Minnesota) localities are started, decorative motifs derived from Mississippian Ramey Incised pots Initial or Emergent Phase Oneota The earliest villages recognized as Oneota arose about AD 1150, as diverse and scattered communities along the floodplains, terraces and bluffs of the rivers, communities that were occupied at least seasonally and perhaps year-round. They were horticulturalists rather than farmers, relying on digging-stick agriculture based on maize and squash, and supplemented by deer, elk, birds and large fish. Foods gathered by early Oneota people include several plants that would be eventually domesticated as part of the Eastern North American Neolithic, such as maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana), chenopodium (Chenopodium berlandieri), little barley (Hordeum pussilum) and erect knotweed (Polygonum erectum). They also collected various nuts--hickory, walnut, acorns--and conducted localized hunting of elk and deer and communal longer-distance hunting of bison. There likely was a lot of variation in these early villages, especially with respect to how important maize was in their diets. Some of the largest villages have accretional burial mounds. At least some of the villages had a tribal level of social and political organization. Development and Classic Period Oneota Middle Oneota communities apparently intensified their farming efforts, moving into broader valleys and including the preparation of ridged fields, and the use of shell and bison scapula hoes. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were added to the diet about 1300 AD: now Oneota people had the entire three sisters agricultural complex. Their communities shifted as well, to include larger houses, with multiple families sharing the same long house. Long houses at the Tremaine site in Wisconsin, for example, were 6-8.5 meters (20-27 feet) wide and varied in length between 26-65 m (85-213 ft). Mound building ceased entirely and mortuary patterns shifted to the use of cemeteries or burials beneath the floors of the longhouses. By the late period, many Oneota people migrated westward. These dispersed Oneota communities displaced the locals in Nebraska, Kansas and adjacent areas of Iowa and Missouri, and thrived on communal bison hunting supplemented with gardening. Bison hunting, assisted by dogs, allowed Oneota to obtain adequate meat, marrow and fat for food, and hides and bones for tools and exchange. Oneota Archaeological Sites Illinois: Gentlemen Farm, Material Service Quarry, Reeves, Zimmerman, Keeshin Farm, Dixon, Lima Lake, Hoxie Farm Nebraska: Leary site, Glen Elder Iowa: Wever, Flynn, Correctionville, Cherokee, Iowa Great Lakes, Bastian, Milford, Gillett Grove, Blood Run Kansas: Lovewell Reservoir, White Rock, Montana Creek Wisconsin: OT, Tremaine, La Crosse, Pammel Creek, Trempealeau Bay, Carcajou Point, Pipe, Mero Minnesota: Red Wing, Blue Earth Sources This article is a part of the About.com guide to the Mississippian Culture, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Several good locations on the web for Oneota information include Lance Fosters Ioway Cultural Institute, the Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist, and the Mississippi Valley Archaeological Center. Betts CM. 2006. Pots and Pox: The Identification of Protohistoric Epidemics in the Upper Mississippi Valley. American Antiquity 71(2):233-259. Boszhardt RF. 2008. Shell-tempered pottery from the upper Mississippi river valley. Southeastern Archaeology 27(2):193-201. Emerson TE, Hedman KM, and Simon ML. 2005. Marginal Horticulturalists or Maize Agriculturalists? Archaeobotanical, Paleopathological, and Isotopic Evidence Relating to Langford Tradition Maize Consumption. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 30(1):67-118. Estes MB, Ritterbush LW, and Nicolaysen K. 2010. Clinker, Pumice, Scoria, or Paralava? Vesicular Artifacts of the Lower Missouri Basin. Plains Anthropologist 55(213):67-81. Fishel RL, Wisseman SU, Hughes RE, and Emerson TE. 2010. Sourcing Red Pipestone Artifacts from Oneota Villages in the Little Sioux Valley of Northwest Iowa. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 35(2):167-198. Logan B. 2010. A Matter of Time: The Temporal Relationship of Oneota and Central Plains Traditions. Plains Anthropologist 55(216):277-292. OGorman JA. 2010. Exploring the Longhouse and Community in Tribal Society. American Antiquity 75(3):571-597. Padilla MJ, and Ritterbush LW. 2005. White Rock Oneota Chipped Stone Tools. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 30(2):259-297. Ritterbush LW, and Logan B. 2009. A Late Prehistoric Bison Processing Camp in the Central Plains: Montana Creek East (14JW46). Plains Anthropologist 54(211):217-236. Theler JL, and Boszhardt RF. 2006. Collapse of crucial resources and culture change: a model for the Woodland to Oneota transformation in the Upper Midwest. American Antiquity 71:433-472. Tubbs RM, and OGorman JA. 2005. Assessing Oneota Diet And Health: A Community And Lifeway Perspective. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 30(1):119-163.
Monday, May 18, 2020
My Nursing Career Queen Mumuney American Sentinel University My Nursing Career American Nurse Association describes nursing as the protection, promotion and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through diagnosis and treatment of human response and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities and population (www.ana.org). Nursing is not a field for everyone. A good nurse must have ninety-five percent if not all of the following characteristic: sound knowledge and training, observant, patience, time management, people skills , documentation skills, critical thinking, empathy, detailed oriented, kind and firm, good judgment, multi task, physicallyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦An accountant can leave work and decide to work from home. This is not the case with nurses. If a nurse does not have a replacement, by law she cannot leave because it is considered abandonment (Maryland Board Of Nursing, August 1993). Work place violence is the most complex and dangerous occupational hazard facing nu rses (Jacobson, February2007). I have witness several of the staff being assaulted by a patient which have led to permanent injury to the staff. It is very frustrating to seeing dedicated staff being assaulted. This also leads to shortage on the units. Injuries are another issue in nursing. A lot of nurses have developed back pain or injury due to the nature of their work. General facts regarding back injuries in the nursing workplace include the following (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2011): o In the year 2000, over 10,000 registered nurses lost work time due to injuries sustained while manually lifting patients in the workplace o Direct and indirect annual costs associated with back injuries in the healthcare industry are estimated to be $20 billion o Overall, healthcare workers experience more musculoskeletal disorders (including back injury) than workers in construction, mining, or manufacturing. Despite all the limitations and frustration, my strong will has an individual to ensure quality patient care has prompted me as an individual to further my education toShow MoreRelatedMy Nursing Experience749 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesI have had many life experiences that have influenced my interest in becoming a nurse. My father is a family physician in the semi-rural area where I grew up. As I became old enough to participate, I had chances to assist my dad in minor procedures and clerical office management. I have also assisted my father outside of the office in helping to stitch up siblings and other family members after minor accidents occurred. I knew early on that one of my desires and strengths would be to challenge myselfRead MoreMy Experience As A Nursing1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgetting as much attention as that of nursing informatics and the technical skills of nursing; and that is the caring aspect of nursing and caring for the patient. When providing care to a patient popu lation, the nursing professional is not just a tool used to get them from one point to another; yet, they are a fundamental aspect for reshaping the ideology of the patient through education, shared positive experiences and true hands on care (Marks, 2013). Nursing education is to be holistic; which isRead MoreMy Personal Experience Of The Nursing Experience In Nursing1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHaving worked as a CNA under the supervision of a nurse for six years in a nursing home, I thought I was well prepared to become a great nurse. I did not know that other than learning sciences and medical procedures there was still more required of me to be a great nurse. At the commencement of the semester, I signed up for the HPR class as a prerequisite for the nursing program. However, I had no clue of what I was expected to learn on the subject. In the last few months, I have learned a lot inRead MoreMy Experience At A Nursing Home2652 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesduring the first week when I s tarted working at a nursing home, as a receptionist, we received an inspection from The Agency For Health Care Administration (AHCA), but at that time, I did not know how important these people were nor did I understand the meaning of them being there. Up until that moment, no one had told me that I was not allowed to screen telephone calls when AHCA was inside the building. I specifically remember that the director of nursing called me from her office and, in a very aggressiveRead MoreMy Personal Experience : My Experience In Nursing School1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesreally can not understand how we made it through that time in our life. My hardest time would have been the period when I was in nursing school for me. So let us start from the beginning so you may have the view that I had, not so many years ago. Ã Ã Ã In 2013 I was attending Walter State in the pre-nursing program, upon applying for the nursing program there I was told that they did not believe it was a good idea I attended nursing school at this time due to having 4 children at home and living 1.5 hoursRead MoreMy Experience At The Nursing Home1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI opened my eyes after a long, energizing slumber. At first, I dreaded the upcoming school day, but I soon realized that it was Saturday. The scent of pancakes and bacon was wafting up the stairs, my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s normal Saturday routine. I climbed out of bed and got dressed in preparation for visiting my grandmother, another weekend tradition. I stumbled quickly down the stairs, shoveled pancakes and bacon into my mouth, and ran upstairs to apply my heavy coat of teenage make-up. I turned my head andRead MoreMy Clinical Experience As A Nursing Student1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNursing students face many challenges due to their narrow scope of prac tice, and lack of experience and knowledge. This changes with the development and learning of values and beliefs, which shape the decision making in the nursing process. During my clinical nursing practice experience as a new nursing student, I have had amazing learning opportunities as well as situations that made me feel uncomfortable, powerless, and dependent on the assigned nurse. In this paper I will talk about one of myRead More My Experiences in a Nursing Career Essay678 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Nursing Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Nursing is an art: and if it is to be made an art, It requires an exclusive devotion as hard a preparation, as any painterÃ ´s or sculptorÃ ´s work; for what is the having to do with dead canvas or dead marble, compared with having to do with the living body, the temple of GodÃ ´s spirit? It is one of the Fine Arts: I had almost said, the finest of Fine Arts.Ã¢â¬ Spoken by a true nurse, Florence Nightingale; a pioneer of nursing and a reformer of hospital sanitation methods. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã IRead MoreMy Life and My Experiences have Led Me to My Career in Nursing547 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesreach. As we grow and go through life experiences, both good and bad, we as humans always seem to take some form of realization or some truth from each experience. The difference amongst all of us is whether or not we take these truths and make something of them. Becoming a nurse isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a career choice I was pushed into making. I have desired to be a nurse for as long as I could remember. My perception of nursing and my desire to become a nurse directly comes from my passion to help people. I want toRead MorePersonal Experience: Getting My Nursing Certificate768 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdepending on the situation. My strengths are that I am fluent in English and Spanish. I am great at Math and I work well with everybody. My weakness is that I will get frustrated when I try something many times and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t achieve it. Also my other weakness is that I will tr ust people easily and then end up getting disappointed sometimes with certain people. I am comfortable with change but not changes that are not so drastic because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had many change in my life. My whole first grade I moved schools
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Public Health Law Public Health Law Gostins treatise on public health law is a very pointed and direct statement on the role that the author believes government should play in the role of improving and maintaining the health of the citizens they are charged with assisting. While Gostin seems very sure of himself, some of what he suggests would be controversial to many people and such derision has been front and center in the public eye since the Affordable Care Act was passed a few years ago. Core Function The core function described by Gostin is the enactment and enforcement of laws that regulate or coerce the public and government in general into behaviors that are for the betterment of the publics health. One example of this in action would be the United States government banning a substance to be used in childrens toys because it is known to be harmful if touched or ingested. Another example would be when the Food and Drug Administration pulling a drug off the market due to a high number of deaths. Gostins Five Functions Responsibility of Government Gostin states in his first point that no single individual has the power to ensure the public health. The relevant local, state and federal government agencies, which are legitimized and empowered by the electorate, are charged with ensuring the public health through collective action and planning. Gostin also acknowledges that the publics definition of what government should and should not do is not uniformShow MoreRelatedPublic Health Vs. Federal Law2197 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages PUBLIC HEALTH GOVERNENCE (STATE Vs. FEDERAL) For a long time, mandatory immunizations on populations have been debatable with respect to public health law in the United States. One argued topic is whether the level of authority to administer such mandates resides at the federal or state or state level. An analysis of the United States Constitution provides some clarity. The role of the Federal Government is somewhat limited with regards to public health, and its role marks a clear distinctionRead MoreInternational Laws And Its Effects On Public Health1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestime some criticize it for the impact on public health. Companies that develop and market patented drug always commends about the essential benefits of developing drugs to the society. In contrast, consumer always complains about the patents being the rationale behind unreasonably high price of the life-saving drugs and its limited access. Although there is a continuous debate pertaining to this matter, International laws has made the patent mandatory. This law governs only for those countries whoRead MoreThe Helmet Law And Public Health Implications Of The Bill1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescompliance law (Ã¢â¬Å"smarter-usa.orgÃ¢â¬ ). The repercussions of this bill including effects on long term state supported medical care, organ donation, and increased insurance premiums pose a major public health issue (Satkoske, 2013). While motorcyclists claim their right to individual freedom of choice, the opposition expresses the concern that riding without a helmet is not only dangerous for riders, but also for the state of Michigan. This paper examines MichiganÃ¢â¬â¢s controversial optional helmet law, assessingRead MoreImportant Provisions Of The Law Relevant Public Health2292 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesQuestions: 1. Explain five main important provisions of the law relevant to public health. 2. Discuss why these provisions are important to public health and/or why they are important to you as public health officers. 3. Identify the offences under the law and state penalties for violations. 4. Outline the steps you will take to deal with ant breach under the law as a public health officer Table of Contents Title Read MoreA Report on Medical History, Law, Prostitution, and Public Health2063 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Medical History Law, Prostitution and Public Health John Scott, in his paper, Prostitution and public health in New South Wales accurately describes the way that prostitutes are seen in this particular region and in the rest of the world. Prostitutes working in public spaces have been presented as sexual agents willfully engaged in criminal conduct and the spread of contagion (2003). This is clearly a more or less universal opinion of prostitutes and prostitution. However, as Scott pointsRead MoreThe Code Of Ethics And The Law Of The Public Health, Safety, And Welfare981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto their clients, society, and themselves. According to the National Society of Professional Engineers, Ã¢â¬Å" the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfareÃ¢â¬ (NSPE, 2015). This means that engineers need to work towards providing all customers, including society as a whole, the best work and proficient product they possibly can. To ensure that each project they work on is workingRead MoreHunger of Memory Precis1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMolina 1 English 116 Professor J. Flynn November 06, 2013 To Care or Not to Care: Obamacare For the past years, our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s health care programs have been asked and petitioned to be improved. President Obama took action into account and decided it was time for our nation to have an affordable and well operated health care program, known as Obamacare. A bill that would allow us to grow and succeed at an affordable cost, but to what expense? Obamacare has severe consequences that willRead MoreLeadership Between Public Health And Local Levels1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLeadership in public health splits into three main levels: federal, state and local. The federal level being the highest, has the governing power over the state and local levels. Leadership on the federal level comprises of the Legislative, Executive and Judicial. Spearheaded by the federal government, public health policies decision making, programs and projects funding flows down to the states and local levels. The variations that exist among the three levels of public health leadership are characterizedRead MorePublic Health Assessment Essay1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto define public health and compare it to personal health, also a discussion of benefits and disadvantages of public health. The following questions will also be answered: What are the benefits of public health assessments? What are the disadvantages, if any? Give an example of a potential conflict withi n the community that could arise as a result of public health assessments. How can public health advocates and policy makers prevent and/or manage such a conflict? How can public health assessmentsRead MoreEvaluation Of The 10 Essential Public Health Services1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesevaluation of the 10 essential Public Health Services and how they can be helpful in the prevention of HIV in communities across the nation. In addition, the paper depicts how the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) has been able to incorporate the 10 essential public health services in its fight against HIV disease. The paper will discuss the assessment of the HIV disease situation in Chicago neighborhoods; policy development by the Chicago Department of Public Health and the assurance that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Diabetes Mellitus and Contemporary Naturopathic Medicine The world is plagued with an overwhelming amount of chronic health conditions. Many people accept this as a part of life, sometimes just assuming it will happen to them because their parents or grandparents suffered with the same condition. Many of these chronic conditions are linked and can shorten your lifespan and increase the amount of pain that a person has to deal with daily. Usually a person suffers with more than one of these conditions. Diabetes Mellitus also known as Type II Diabetes effects children, young adults, adults as well as the elderly. Diabetes Mellitus can be helped by using naturopathic medicine, yoga and tai chi. The benefits of naturopathic medicine, yogaÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Preventive care practices are essential to better health outcomes for people with diabetes.4 Due to the steady rise in the number of persons with DM, and possibly earlier onset of type 2 DM, there is growing concern about: The possibility of substantial increases in prevalence of diabetes-related complications in part due to the rise in rates of obesity The possibility that the increase in the number of persons with DM and the complexity of their care might overwhelm existing health care systems The need to take advantage of recent discoveries on the individual and societal benefits of improved diabetes management and prevention by bringing life-saving discoveries into wider practice The clear need to complement improved diabetes management strategies with efforts in primary prevention among those at risk for developing type 2 DM. naturopathic medicine of one of the important CAMs may help reduce the number of people that may be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and help the people that have already been diagnosed. Modern Naturopathic medicine Diabetes mellitus effects every age
Why did men continue to fight in WWI? The Great War was fought between 1914 until 1918. It took the lives of millions of men and it is said to have had horrible conditions, the question still remains. Why did men continue to fight in the Great War? Was it because of their discipline in the army? Did they fight because of their friends in the army? Or were the conditions in the trenches not as bad as people say they were? This essay will argue that, even though all of these reasons were very important, the main reason men continued to fight was army discipline and comradeship. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Did Men Continue to Fight in Ww1? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Army discipline was definitely an important factor for why men continued to fight. The army aimed to keep soldiers as disciplined as possible, therefore they made severe punishments for misbehaviour. For example, if soldiers refused to walk through Ã¢â¬Å"no mans landÃ¢â¬ the punishment would be to be shot by a firing squad, the firing squad would be your own battalion. This would be done to increase the discipline of the rest of the battalion. They knew that if they were to disobey orders their friends and comrades would shoot them. However, around five million men served in the British army during the war; out of all these men, 3080 men were sentenced to death but only 364 were actually executed. This evidence suggests that perhaps army discipline was not the most important factor, however, 364 men might have scared most men enough to not disobey orders. The conditions of the trenches were said to be horrific and devastating, however the British army had very high standards of cleanliness and they were aware of what the soldiers needed to keep on fighting. They aimed to keep morale as high as possible and therefore provided more than sufficient amount of food, very good medical care, and tried to generally make the soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ living conditions better. Efforts were made to keep the trenches cleaner; for example, rats were a big issue at the beginning of the war but as the war progressed, they were quickly eliminated from the trenches. Lice were also a problem so they fumigated, washed and ironed soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ uniforms when they came out of the line. Since soldiers got taken care of, this was definitely one of the reasons they continued to fight, or at least made ighting more bearable. The men who fought in the war would often make friends in their battalions. This would definitely keep the men strong and able to fight. The soldiers did not want to let their friends down, and they all wanted to fight for their fellow soldiers. None of them wanted to die, but it was worst to die alone without their friends. They fought to keep th eir friends and themselves alive, so they could bear the war in the company of people they cared for. Sometimes, soldiers became such good friends, they went mad if their friend died, or they would continue to see each other after the war. Comradeship was a very important factor that helped them get through the war. You cannot generalize why men continued to fight. Different men fought for different things. But most men probably fought for various reasons. The fact that the conditions were not so bad probably helped men a lot, as well as being able to fight with their friends. But the fear of death by the hand of their friends was probably what drove most people to keep on fighting in the war. It probably also helped other soldiers encourage their friends to keep on fighting, and therefore army discipline and comradeship are the most important causes. How to cite Why Did Men Continue to Fight in Ww1?, Essay examples
The History Of Ballet Essay, Research Paper Ballet When dance appeared as a popular, and common, signifier of amusement in the late fifteenth and 16th centuries public presentations included mixtures of tumblings, address and vocal. The public presentations were created on a big graduated table for those of royalty and on a smaller graduated table for the more common people. The amusement in the tribunal frequently held that of a political docket. These dances were used to demo off the tribunal # 8217 ; brilliant visual aspect and were written and conceived as elusive propaganda. For case, dances may hold been designed to blandish a visiting very important person, connoting the purposes of the host, or the dances could be created to endanger the very important person with a feeling of power and strength. A adult female by the name of Catherine de Medici took this art with her from England to France and into her matrimony to King Henry II. We will write a custom essay sample on The History Of Ballet Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page During this clip she ordered the creative activity of the Ballet Conique de la Reine. It was an heroic piece enduring five hours, meant to observe the matrimony of a friend ; this Ballet came to be known as the beginning of the HISTORY OF BALLET. During this period many more heroic poems and influential dances were created. By the seventeenth and 18th centuries a house foundat ion for Ballet had been established. Women began to fall in in the dance ; Ballet Masters began to try a signifier of notation for this dance. In add-on, costumes became sleeker in order to accommodate to the intricate motion of the pes and the organic structure of the female terpsichorean, who, at this clip began to derive laterality in the dance. To this point Ballet had been, chiefly, a really restricted dance. Free fluxing motion and jumps/lifts were non yet socially acceptable. The lone alterations that could be made were fluctuations in floor forms and pacing. So, from here, Ballet continued its combination of dance vocalizing and music, singing normally taking case in point over the other two. More adept danseuse, or female Ballet terpsichoreans, shortened their skirts to demo off their more intricate footwork and manner, unluckily this was non accepted until 50 old ages subsequently. By 1760 Dance Masters began to oppugn the limitations that had been placed on their art. This , in bend, triggered off a set of a reaction of bigger, better, and newer Ballets, this development created the Ballet we are now familiar with. Womans in short, downy skirts an elegant pastels, and work forces jumping higher than NBA professionals had to get down someplace, little did we cognize it began more than six centuries before many of us were born.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Physical or Mental Stability and Trigger. Answer: Introduction Stress is as a psychological response to stimulus that disturbs our physical or mental stability and triggers adverse reactions in an individual. One stressful event might trigger to fight-or-flight response leading to the release of adrenaline and cortisol hormone. Chronic stress begins to have negative impact on physical and mental well-being of individual. In order to manage stress and change health behavior of affected person, understanding about different theories of health behavior is necessary to reduce stress and improve well-being of University students (Thoits, 2013). This literature review will particularly discuss two of the five theories of health behavior that might influence stress management practice of students. In psychology, health professionals base their intervention based on several health behavior model that aim to identify peoples behavior based on various variables. This health behavior model explains the reason behind peoples engagement in health promoting or health compromising behavior. The five theories of health behavior- health belief model, protection motivation theory of health, theory of reasoned action, theories of health behavior and theories of planned behavior are all influenced by social-cognitive concept. All these theories mainly explain the health belief of individuals that might be risk health and increase their susceptibility to illness (Prestwich et al., 2014). This literature review particularly looks at the health belief model and the protection motivation theory of health to determine its impact on reducing stress and improving well-being of students. Health belief model One of the theories related to human behavior is the health belief model which focus on the fact that peoples health related action is based on six factors which are as follows: Perceived susceptibility- it is an a persons belief that they are likely to contract an illness Perceived severity - It is perceived impact of illness on peoples life Perceived benefits of health behavior- Ones belief on the benefits of an advised action to reduce the impact of illness Perceived barriers/ costs of health behavior- peoples perception about the psychological cost an action or treatment Cues to action- strategies taken to activate readiness to a health behavior Self-efficacy-confidence on ones ability to modify their health behavior. Hence this factors indicate that the health behavior is determines by individuals personal belief about illness and the strategies taken by them to reduce its occurrence. These perceptions are also modified by variable like culture, education level, past experience and motivation (Skinner, Tiro, Champion, 2015). One research literature focused on applying the concepts the health belief model to explore stress management in University students. Stress has affected college students in many ways. It has lead to chronic health conditions, poor quality of life, reduced productivity and poor individual morale (King et al., 2012). The researcher indicated that all this had been due to psychological and emotional problem in individuals such as anxiety, depression and frustration. College students are most vulnerable to negative consequences because college is a stressful time in their life. They have found to suffer from academic performance impairment, increased anxiety and decrease in life satisfaction due to academic stress of competing for the highest grades. They start experiencing physical and psychological impairments frequently (Baghurst Kelley, 2014). The research applied the components of perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action of health belief model in coping with stres s. The purpose of the research was to analyze if students habit of stress management techniques differs based on the three constructs of health belief model. The coping strategies employed according to this research included breathing exercises, emotional support, acceptance, problem focused coping, emotional focused coping, mindfulness and many others. The results indicated that most helpful techniques for reducing stress in university students included listening to music, exercise and taking deep breaths. It was also found that frequency of stress management differs based on the core concept of the model. This research gave the implication that more research should be done to promote frequent use of stress management techniques among University students (King et al., 2012). Research by Ryff, (2013) investigated the efficacy of health belied model to address negative functioning in individual due to presence of stressors in life and enable them to realize personal capacity and talent. It gave idea about how psychological well-being is affected by changes across adult development. Personality correlates was regarded as an important predictor of well being in individual. The health belief model has the concept that ones perception about illness affects their health behavior and this research showed that it is this perceptions are also created due to experiences in family. Therefore the challenges of stress and reducing risk of complication are dependent personal traits like resilience which help people to manage adversities in life and attain positive psychological outcome. The study was useful as it gave the implication that psychological well-being is dependent on resisting social pressures and regulating behavior, competence in managing environment, fee ling of modifying self-behavior, engaging in trusting relationship with others and having a positive attitude towards life. Regehr, Glancy, Pitts, (2013) looked at the possible approach to reduce stress in University students. This research was important due to the high rate of anxiety and depression among university students and low percentage of student seeking treatment from university health services. The research investigated the efficacy of different treatment in relieving stress in university students through meta-analysis and the result gave idea about cognitive, behavioral and mindfulness based interventions to decrease symptoms of anxiety and stress. The limitation of the research was that it over-represented interventions with female students and some intervention did not have sufficient data for analysis. The usefulness of this research is that it provides evidence based interventions to reduce stress and which would encourage universities to develop stress reduction program for university students. Protection motivation theory Protection motivation theory is based on the idea that individuals tend to protect themselves based on factors of perceived probability of occurrence, perceived severity of threatening events, perceived self-efficacy and efficacy of preventive behavior. This motivation originates both from threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The former evaluates severity of a situation while the assessed response to the situation (Mullan et al., 2015). Therefore through this approach health behavior can be modified by sustaining protective behavior. Protection motivation theory might help in attitude change and stress management in university students by making them aware of the variable in the theory that can influence cognitive appraisal process. Review of the theory in research literature reveals that it has the advantage of addressing fear and attitudes of people with psychological problems due to stress and anxiety (Posey et al., 2013). Research by De Castella, Byrne, Covington, (2013) investigated the impact of this theory to manage factors that lead to anxiety in university students. They develop symptoms of anxiety due to fear of failure, competition for good grades in exams and success orientation. Although success orientation is good for developing self-worth of students, however it is that way that their fear of failure interacts that make them vulnerable to stress and underachievement in college. This research tried to employ the protective behavior technique of need achievement to determine how this are related to stress and other symptoms in vulnerable people. Study with Japanese students showed that their helplessness were low in success orientation but high in fear of failure. Therefore the research gave the idea that success orientation might help students to overcome of failure and reduce their anxiety. Therefore the research was successful in demonstrating that fear of failure is a maladaptive self-pr otective strategy and students should engage in positive application of motivation to achievement dynamics. Another research literature tried to reduce stressors in University students by studying the relation between study engagement and intrinsic motivation. The main purpose was get insight into the psychological capital of students. The research was done by two studies, one evaluating the relation between psychological capital and study engagement and other investigating the intrinsic motivation as a factor leading to study engagement. Through the analysis of data, the results showed that motivation technique like dedication, absorption and vigor can help to reduce anxiety and increase study engagement in university students (Siu, Bakker, Jiang, 2014). Hence, the study gave the implications that intrinsic motivation can be a significant mediator of study engagement in students. Conclusion From the literature review on the theories of health belief model and protection motivation theory, it can be concluded that this theories can be affectively applied in stress management and improving psychological well-being of university students. Review of several research studies gave the implication that different means of stress management techniques have helped student to reduce symptoms of stress and anxiety and overcome their fear of failure. Some research was useful in providing techniques that university health service program could employ to manage stress in university life and be confidence by adapting intrinsic motivation factors. This literature review gives the implication that more research should be done to think of ways to increase the frequency of stress management techniques in University students. Reference Baghurst, T., Kelley, B. C. (2014). An examination of stress in college students over the course of a semester.Health promotion practice,15(3), 438-447. De Castella, K., Byrne, D., Covington, M. (2013). Unmotivated or motivated to fail? A cross-cultural study of achievement motivation, fear of failure, and student disengagement.Journal of Educational Psychology,105(3), 861. King, K. 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