Monday, December 9, 2019
Place Identities and Social Relations Ã¢â¬ Free Samples to Students
Question: Discuss about the Place Identities and Social Relations. Answer: Introduction: Neo-liberalism is an old concept developed lately and became prominent with consideration of the economic stability in various places and countries in all over the world (Sager Tore, 2011). Darwin, which is historically, geographically, strategically located and considered in regard to tourism and related with the influence of neo-liberalism, in the respective tourism industry, the place has been critically analyzed against the share of public and private. A thesis is proposed to develop the Darwin Waterfront Precinct, mixed with the local areas, by imbibing the concept of neoliberalism, towards with the aimed priority of increasing the local and tourist economy. Darwin Waterfront Precinct is geographically located in Darwin, in Northern Territory in Australia. Darwin is considered as a cosmopolitan city, though is small, with population of 110,000 and stands as NTs tropical capital city. Today, Darwin Waterfront has become an apt weekend destination for the following features Management. WWII oil storage tunnels Travelers walk The pump house Stokes hill wharf Larrakia secrete site, present in strokes hill Hughes avenue Bombing of Darwin The other tourist attractions, from Darwin pace are Goyder Park, Darwin wave pool, waterfront lagoon, Deckchair cinema, Darwin convention center, apartments, shops, etc. Unique cosmopolitan makeup of Darwin is recognized by the Australian National Trust, as multicultural icon of national significance. The distinctive Darwin waterfront characteristics are man-made beach, wave pool, restaurants, bars and two natural wharfs. Other important natural attractions are George Brown Darwin botanic gardens, Bicentennial Park, Lake Alexander, Charles Darwin National Park and Casuarina Coastal Reserve. Urban Design Strategies for Development Waterfront Precinct in Darwin is an urban design strategy for the development, as it is built over the reclaimed land, in between Fort Hill and Strokes Hill, from Kitchener Bay. As the part of the design, the Fort Hill was removed to create new space. As another part of design strategy, Darwin oil storage tunnels had been built, towards the navys oil protection, from the attacks by the Japanese, during the World War II. Two Darwin oil storage tunnels are made open for access to the public (Oakley, 2009). The transport strategies involve heading Darwin, through Chartair, regional link and Darwin international airport. The city is reachable by sea, by train and by road. The temporal capital city, Darwin is both dry and humid, in a year. Darwin is a place with an identified infrastructure and natural tourism elements exist. The place is chosen, as it is one of the most prominent tourist places, where multi-culture is found, since people from 50 cities have landed and made their living. Local influence is not much, as eco-tourism is not taken place in Darwin, through is present in other parts of Australia. Technically, Darwin place is public. However, the place was occupied more by the private realtors, who have built various restaurants, resorts and many commercial business structures. And some of these areas are restricted from the public access (Blanco et al, 2009). Neo-liberalism is an idea born in nineteenth century and resurged in 20th century and the idea has association with laissez-faire economic liberalism. The idea focuses on free trade, austerity, privatization, deregulation and government spending reduction, for increasing the private sector role in the society and economy. So, neo-liberalism can be conceived as economic liberalization. The idea had paradigm shifted away the consensus of post-war Keynesian, lasting in 1980. Neo-liberalism is not considered to be a direct blueprint of governmental reform coherent strategy, but is considered to be government rationality that is highly path dependent. It demands the actors, technologies and institutions, enacting and disseminating across the geographical spaces, successfully. Finally, the concept of neolibaralism allowed the governmental effort to reshape and redevelop the Waterfront of Darwin to shift to international renowned Darwin, from a perception of a least known big country town. Finally, renewal and redeveloped Darwin waterfront is driven by paradigm of neo-liberal competitive city. More commonly, geo-economic and geo-political discources have been employed, towards and characterizing and identifying, as the problems that demand resolutions, and also strategies for rationalities that can be deployed to drive change to urban. The city eventually, has become one of the capitals for the tourists and lifestyle. Darwin waterfront has now been focused mixed use economy. Neo-liberalism has influenced the Darwin waterfront place and its development. The North Territory Government has taken the Darwin Tourism as a pet project, since at that point of time, private investment was lacked. Eventually, leading role was taken by the government of NT, for marketing and promotion of the Darwin place. And the newer development projects are also taken place by the government, towards developing the place with new tourism projects. Here, the governments role is critical in the Darwin tourism development and is the indication of institutional environment creation, for operation of the tourism industry. Eventually, the government gets more control, planning regulation, stimulation, entrepreneurial activity, coordination and promotion (Hall, 2000). It shows exceptional position of domination by the NT government, for tourism. Since most of the Darwin place is involved in tourism, it shows domination of government in Darwin place, as a whole (Berzins, 2007). The strategy followed by the government was interventionist approach. As far as the local government, the authorities are very limited (Pforr, 2001), since the government of NT became the leading tourism decision-maker. The prospects of tourism in Darwin was curtailed, devastated most of the infrastructure and city, by Cyclone Tracy, in 1974. However, Darwin reconstruction with consequent growth of strong population, a considerable momentum gained during 1980s. The growth has been continued, and the tourists increased to 720,000 visitors for a year, contributing more than 50% of visitors to NT and eventually, Darwin has become the most visited destination, in the NT. The average stay of visitors in Darwin is about 7 nights, which is the longer than the other part of the Territory Tourism NT, 2009). Going forward, Darwin has gained substantial market for the tourism business, reaching approximately, 23% of total market of visitors. The market is also grown to an extent that the market of strong visiting friends and relatives moved to 15% of total visitor market (Tourism Research Australia, 2009).today, Darwin tourism has got its share of 7% of Darwin labour force, who got employment in the food beve rage and accommodation sectors and tourism in Darwin stands, as one of the largest set of employers in private sector (Australia Bureau of Statistics, 2008). In recent years, Darwin has received enormous investment in the redevelopment of the infrastructure of the tourism, far more than the investment made in the other parts of the NT tourism. One of the important infrastructure projects was huge and $1.1 billion for the Darwin waterfront redevelopment, in which the new convention centre construction was taken place, as part of it (Forster, 2006). Other significant reconstruction are artificial swimming lagoon, having hotels, wave pool, residential apartments, holiday apartments, cruise ship terminal, retail space, restaurants, along with walkway bridge covered, to link the precinct of waterfront with the centre of the city. After the project of waterfront, the investment and construction have boomed in the city center of Darwin with new apartment complexes, hotels and several entertainment venues, upgraded and newly built. Here, the government of NT, encourages investment and partnership of the private investment, strongly and even offered subsidizing, from the other investment parties. It shows influence of neo-liberalism, allowing free market with inviting and encouraging the investors in the redevelopment of Darwin waterfront and city (Girald, et al, 2014). Here, though such increase of private and free market investment are seemed to be positive for the development of the city, in the view of short-term economic growth, however, the long-term impact from these developments are understood to be still extensive involvement of the government. It still indicates that the government to be extensive and sole decision-maker, in the design and development of Darwin, and the equity of the private stakeholders is still substantially reduced, which shows lower influence of neo-liberalism (Simpson, 2001). When the government support is continuous resilience for investment in Darwin infrastructure, development, distribution and marketing, it could create a sort of dependency culture among the players of private industry and it would stifle the private investment and home-grown initiatives, which eventually could lock the industry to become the path of permanent dependency development (Kneafsey, 2000). Some important cultural aspects of Darwin are Darwin festival, aboriginal art awards, Heineken hottest sevens in the world, arafura games, Darwin cup carnival, etc. When the number of international visitors became down, the government has shown its efforts only towards capturing the domestic market, by announcing publicly as both the opposition parties and tourism industry made calls, for the government to allocate additional fund for marketing. The examples are recent marketing funds boost, after the 2008 global financial crisis and Arafura rescue package, the extra promotion and compensation payment funds to Darwin. It was done after the Arafura Games cancellation, in 2003, because of the SARS outbreak. Tourism marketing was supported by the government, by the announcement of $15 million, towards support for marketing of the tourism, to ride out the then global financial slowdown. The primary strategy Darwin urban development is turning it to the best tourism places, to create more jobs, though short-term and boost the local economy, through focus and investment in the showy and large infrastructure. Gradually, the investment is increased from the external investors shows increased influence of neo-liberalism. It is a positive sign for the free economic market. The waterfront precinct of Darwin is one of the most important tourism infrastructure investments. The government endorsed in 1990s, for a major Darwin Wharf redevelopment, aiming to convert it to a vibrant harbor city and to be recognized internationally. And the project was labeled as the biggest investment of tourism in the history of Territory, officially. The project development was initiated with the pubic-private partnership, with government as main driving force, having its investment of $150 million. The neo-liberalism influence has resulted in waterfront pet project to be shaped to todays picture of Darwin waterfront. Waterfront is shaped with inclusion of huge installation of public art, apartments, water park and convention centre. The waterfront is strategized to enrich with passenger terminal for visiting of the cruise ships. The built environment has been drastically changed after the commencement of the waterfront project. It influenced with immediate spill-over effects, in the city centre for the accommodation sector, with short-term rental and holiday accommodation. The bed crisis was eased by new accommodation developments encouragement, by the Tourism and government in NT, on several occasions. The development eventually has given spin-offs for the whole economy of Territory. One of the significant strategies developed and followed by the government of NT was to encourage the tourism infrastructure and accommodation construction and increase local employment, especially, when the number of tourists was projected to decrease. Though it was mentioned in very few articles, the fact remains that most of the investing companies are externally based, such as SKyCity, Toga Hotels, Saville Hotel Group, etc. It may not completely justify the influence of neo-liberalism, though. A tourism restaurant is strategically placed and built that the customers can overlook the harbor (Adlam, 2006). It is indicated as cultural infrastructural growth. It appears to be creative to the creative industry customers touristic eye. CBD is one of the important tourist places along with Darwin waterfront and so a walkway is constructed, connecting these two potential tourist places. Urban form, Environment and Public Space Urban form is considered to have huge buildings, entertainment hubs, while all the facilities are available for living, improving the quality and standards of life. So, Darwin Convention Center is proposed to build, as an auditorium that has the capacity of 1500 seating, along with huge exhibition space of 4000 sq. m., wave logon, seal wall construction, open public space, with enough space for car parking, in multi-stories. Big apartment hotel with 121 rooms, another hotel with capacity of 120 rooms, along with many residential apartments, reaching and more than 138 are proposed and built. Apart from 138 residential and huge apartment hotel, both retail and commercial apartments are built, with mixed usage of retail and commercial component. The creative potential of Darwin and Darwin waterfront lies in the public spaces that are racially mixed. Today, Darwin stands as one of the greatest topical cities in the world. CBD and pedestrian mall struggle with sales figures and visitor number decline. Local business operators hope for increased effects of flow, from convention visitors in the Central Business District. Here, the sole decision maker, the government influence the local business. Since the connection between CBD and waterfront is poor, any new construction or waterfront development can hardly benefit. Conclusion The research and critical analysis indicate that the tourism development of Darwin, by the substantial NT Government involvement has been from early 2000s and the share of the private partnership has been increased during 21st century and eventually, the partnership of private and free market signs are considerably less, as there is strong presence and involvement of government is seen, in terms of planning, regulation, strategic development in developing and urbanizing the Darwin place and so the city. Though neo-liberalism is seen in this place, from 21st century, the share is still minor and role of government continues to dominate. Industry dependence and lack of private investment on government show continued domination of the marketing and development of tourism by the NT Government (Tourism NT, 2008). Tourism, which is an economic industry, has not been evolved as a process of organic growth, completely and appears to be an industry that is artificial government driven, whose objective is supposed to be local economy boost, simulating the employment and economic activity, in real estate and construction industries. As the Darwin tourism is still reliant on the investment and continuous support of the government and external investors, it may take longer time to be breeding ground for the innovation and entrepreneurship locally and become more independent economic system. References Adlam, N (2006) Clare Wants Makeover. Northern Territory News, November 26, 2. 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